The Resistance to Metaphor project is led by Gerard Steen, professor of Language and Communication at the University of Amsterdam and director of the Metaphor Lab Amsterdam. The project team consists of three supervisors, two postdocs and four PhDs.

Please click on the names for more information.

Project leader and supervisors:

Prof. dr. G.J. SteenDr. C. AndoneDr. H.J. PlugDr. J.H.M. Wagemans



Dr. R. Pilgram

Roosmaryn Pilgram is a postdoc and lecturer at the University of Amsterdam, and a lecturer and researcher at Leiden University. She obtained her PhD from the University of Amsterdam in 2015. Her dissertation concerned the reasonableness and effectiveness of a doctor’s argument by authority in medical consultation. At present, Roosmaryn conducts experimental research within the Resistance to Metaphor project.

Dr. L. van Poppel

Lotte van Poppel is a lecturer in the department of Speech Communication, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric at the UvA and in Dutch Studies at Leiden University. In her dissertation (2013), she focused on the strategic function and design of pragmatic arguments in advisory health campaigns. Her research interests include argumentation theory, stylistics, and health communication. In 2017 she started the NWO-funded postdoc research Modelling resistance to metaphor in argumentative discourse.



A.B. Finsen MA

Andreas Finsen is a PhD candiate at UvA and holds an MA in Rhetoric from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He conducts his research at the intersection of argumentation theory, metaphor theory and the philosophy of science. He is especially interested in the ways in which scientific metaphors influence our common, everyday understanding of what it means to be human.

J. Fu MA

Jie Fu has an MA in linguistics from Beijing International Studies University, China. Her research interests include metaphor studies and psycholinguistics. Her PhD project is about metaphor use in aphasic setting. It focuses on how people with aphasia talk about their experiences with metaphors, how they interpret metaphors and their resistance to certain metaphors.

K.Y. Renardel de Lavalette MA

Kiki Renardel de Lavalette completed a MA in Communication and Information sciences at the VU Amsterdam. She is especially interested in the various ways that metaphors can be used in political discourse. In her PhD project she focuses on the argumentative functions metaphors can have in political discourse, and the resistance these metaphors can elicit.

D.Y.M. Wackers MA

Dunja Wackers completed her Research Master’s degree in Linguistics at Leiden University. Her main interests include argumentation theory and the reconstruction of argumentative discourse. In her PhD project she studies metaphorical argumentation and argumentation about metaphor by investigating the ways in which war-related metaphors for cancer are resisted in public discourse.


Project support:

S.H.E.E. Wolfswinkel

University van Amsterdam, Faculty of Humanities, Capaciteitsgroep Taalbeheersing, Argumentatietheorie en Retorica